In statistics, the p-value is the probability of obtaining results at least as extreme as the observed results of a statistical hypothesis test, assuming that the null hypothesis is correct.

P-value helps you determine the significance of your results in relation to the null hypothesis.

**Formula to calculate p value in excel.**

- In excel, click on data and choose data analysis.
- Select t-test:Paired Two Sample for Means.
- Add in the arguments, click OK and get your answer.

**Example:**

Calculate the P value of the gym program

Name | Before (Weight in Kg) | After (Weight in Kg) |

Mike | 54 | 53 |

Alex | 60 | 64 |

Esther | 92 | 70 |

Ann | 52 | 47 |

Cristiano | 70 | 64 |

We begin by transferring the data to an excel spreadsheet.

Click on Data and choose data analysis,choose t-test:paired Two Sample for Means, input your arguments in the table that appears.

A new sheet like the one below will be formed with your results.

Therefore, on the results, we can see that the p-value with the one-tail test is 0.12 and the p-value with the two-tail test is 0.24.